Why do we need to read about marketing management first? Because marketing research is closely related to the management of a business’s marketing management.
Before carrying out various marketing activities, business people are required to carry out various studies or research aimed at knowing the development of their goods, both in terms of sales, marketing, branding, and consumer satisfaction.
To conduct such research, a business needs to prepare various things so that its research can show the original information that is happening in the field. This article will explain from A to Z about marketing research. Come on, let’s study together.
Definition of Marketing Research
Marketing research is a series of data collection processes that are used as the basis for marketing activities. In general, marketing research is also often equated with market research.
This is because in marketing research also examines the condition of the goods / services produced circulating in the market.
In every business, marketing research is used for different purposes. However, it is often used as the basis for making marketing strategies, increasing sales of goods / services, and developing a business in terms of branding, customer satisfaction, and consideration for increasing the amount of production. Marketing research is also a measure of the success of goods / services sold to the general public.
In the manufacturing process, marketing research requires a variety of data sources and data processing methods. Marketing research is also divided into several types according to the research needs.
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Marketing Research Objectives
Apart from being used to research the condition of the sale of goods / services, marketing research also has other purposes that are useful for the marketing process of your business.
Marketing research objectives:
- Take advantage of market gaps
- Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of goods / services
- Get information and direct assessment from consumers
- Determine the right sales system
- Knowing the success of the branding process
- Define marketing strategy
Types of Marketing Research
In practice, marketing research takes many forms.
1. Market Segmentation Research
Market segmentation research is research conducted to find target markets and consumers that match the goods / services. In market segmentation research, the data you can look for includes consumer needs and tastes for a particular product / service.
Determining the target market and consumers is important so that you can adjust the goods / services produced to their needs and desires.
2. Sales Research
Although they have different concepts, marketing and sales are related to each other. One of the marketing objectives is also intended to determine how the system of selling an item / service is. In sales research, you can collect data on the results of achieving sales targets for several periods.
This serves so that you know whether the marketing activities carried out have an influence on the achievement of the number of goods / services sold.
3. Marketing Planning Research
Still remember, right discussion about planning a marketing management ( planning )? Well, to start planning, you can do research first on data related to the preparation of marketing strategies and activities.
In addition, marketing planning research can also be done when you start a business. The goal is that you have an overview of your target marketing.
4. Branding Research
Branding research aims to let you know whether your goods / services are widely known by the general public. Branding has a significant role in marketing because with strong branding, your goods / services will gain more trust from consumers. Consumer confidence will increase sales of goods / services.
5. Competitor Analysis Research
Competitor analysis research gives you an understanding of the competition between the same goods / services as competitors. This competitor analysis is important, you know so that you can find out the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities that exist in your business and competitors.
You can also analyze how competitors carry out marketing activities and their relationship to consumer trust and sales levels for their goods / services. There’s nothing wrong with taking opportunities from our competitors? haha.
6. Research on Prices of Goods/Services
Research that is no less important than all the types of research above is price research. Even though they both analyze the competitors, price research specifically examines the price competition for goods / services produced. In addition, price research also involves consumers directly to provide feedback about the prices offered by your business.
For example, in research questionnaires price, you can enter a query includes the ability of consumers to pay the price indicated for the goods / services that and other questions related to the price. The results of the price research will determine the pricing strategy for your goods / services.
Marketing Research Methods
To collect marketing research data, you need to use various methods. This method is intended so that you can collect data according to the purpose and type of research that will be carried out.
All marketing research methods should be aimed directly at the target marketing research. This is to facilitate the processing and analysis of research data results as needed.
For example, if your business is a contemporary snack food product that is marketed online, then the targeted marketing research targets are men and women aged 15-35 years, living in an area with easy internet access. You can directly use various marketing research methods to the target marketing group.
To find out about marketing research methods, below will be discussed five methods that you can use.
The method of filling out the form contains the questions you want to ask according to the required data. Questionnaires can be made either offline by distributing printed forms or online in the form of online forms such as Google Forms.
Examples of marketing research questionnaire questions:
- Why did you choose our product?
- What types of products do you buy the most from our business?
- Is the product delivery process fast?
- How did our business marketplace admin respond?
- Are you willing to recommend our products to friends and relatives?
- Are the prices we offer appropriate?
- What are the things that need to be improved from our product?
- How does the quality of our products compare to those of other companies?
In marketing research, questionnaire and survey methods have something in common. Both of them ask respondents to answer the questions asked. The difference lies in the category of respondents. If the questionnaire method is carried out with respondents who are in accordance with the marketing target, the survey method is aimed at the general public. The selection of respondents uses a random sample with the aim of knowing the general assessment of your goods / services.
You can ask several questions according to the type of marketing research you are doing. Below are some examples of marketing research surveys:
In the interview method, the data collection process is carried out by meeting in person or by telephone and asking questions to respondents.
The questions asked are not much different from those used by the questionnaire and survey methods, really. But in the interview method you can see firsthand their reaction when talking about your goods / services. You can also directly explore the respondent’s experience when using your goods / services ( user experience ).
FGD (Focus Group Discussion)
The FGD marketing research method is carried out by conducting group discussions consisting of several respondents. Group discussions usually consist of approximately 15 people drawn from a predetermined sample of marketing targets.
You need to choose the right sample of respondents so that the results of the discussion can represent market conditions. Choose respondents with diverse backgrounds, so that the results of the FGD can provide suggestions or solutions to your business from various perspectives.
The observation method in marketing research is done by observing the market situation directly. The results of this research method will show a descriptive picture of the market situation. In this way, you can pay attention to the cause-and-effect picture related to the sale and purchase of goods / services.
The observation method allows you to research why your merchandise sales have decreased somewhere and the reasons why your service operations have decreased.
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Marketing Research Data Source
After knowing what methods can be used to obtain marketing research data, you can immediately process the data to be used as a source of analysis. In processing research data, you also need other data sources to add data references.
In general, the source of data obtained from the above methods is the primary data source because it is directly obtained from consumers. While other data references are often called secondary data.
The following will explain primary and secondary data sources and their differences:
|Data Example||Secondary Data|
|Definition||Information/response/assessment directly from consumers||Information/responses/assessments from other parties that are processed first|
|How to get data||Questionnaire SurveysInterviewsF GDO Observation||Sales data Reports from research institutions about your goods/services Articles in the mass media (newspapers, online media, magazines)Journals from educational institutions Publications from government institutions Financial reports for your business or business|
|Lack||Must incur special costs to carry out data collection activities||Because the data obtained does not have a high level of accuracy, it is easy to question the clarity of the data|
|Excess||Data directly from consumers Meeting directly with consumers makes your business trusted by consumers||You don’t have to pay special fees Can be done just by doing a search on the internet|
How to Analyze Marketing Research Data
After the data is collected, the step that often confuses you is how to analyze the data into a conclusion. If you pay attention, the data sources taken have two forms, namely descriptive and non-descriptive.
Descriptive data is data that can be explained in writing because it comes from the ratings, responses, and explanations from consumers of your goods/services.
Meanwhile, non-descriptive data are in the form of numbers obtained from the number of sales of goods/services at the sales location as well as satisfaction surveys which have a series of answers as exemplified above.
Both have different analytical methods. You can analyze descriptive data with qualitative analysis methods, while non-descriptive data use quantitative analysis methods.
- Processed data comes from questionnaires, interviews, observations, FGD
- The final results of the data are in the form of explanations of cause and effect, assessments, responses, and suggestions
- Qualitative data processing tends to be faster because it is an easy-to-conclude explanation
- Examples wrote, ya if questions such as “Is our production items easily found in a shopping center near where you live?” If you get 80% of the answers “hard to find” by respondents in big cities, it’s likely that your distribution of merchandise should be increased again.
- Data in the form of numbers obtained from data on the number of sales, satisfaction surveys, production quantities, etc
- Quantitative analysis makes it easy to interpret data objectively because it has a high level of accuracy
- Examples of quantitative analysis of data obtained from consumer satisfaction surveys
If the number 1 indicates a very bad/often/easy/long score and the number 10 indicates a very good/often/easy/long score, then if 6 out of 10 respondents choose numbers 7-10, it indicates that the respondent often uses your services.
If you want to process large amounts of quantitative data, you can use SPSS ( Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ) software . SPSS is statistical data processing software that is often used to process statistical data. This software has many features such as tabulation and data transformation so that it can be read easily.
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Marketing Research Process
- Formulating the Problem
- Determining the Type of Research
- Designing Data Collection Methods
- Prepare Research Report
- Perform Data Analysis & Interpretation
- Taking Sampling & Collecting Data
How to Make Marketing Research Online & Offline
|Marketing Research Online||Marketing Research Offline|
|1. Formulate the problem||1. Formulate the problem|
|2. Determine the type of marketing research||2. Determine the type of marketing research|
|3. Designing marketing research methods||3. Define marketing research methods|
|4. Because marketing research is online, you can choose a method that is packaged in online form such as: – Questionnaires and surveys can use Google Forms or Microsoft Forms – Interviews and FGDs can be done by appointing respondents to follow the process on Google Meet and Zoom – Observation you can do it in the online marketplace 5. After the data collection method is carried out, then take the answers for analysis 6. The data that has been collected is then analyzed according to the needs of the marketing research you are doing 7. In the final stage, you can compile the data that can be used presented in the form of presentations or written reports such as journals and articles||4. Offline marketing research means you can meet consumers face-to-face. Offline marketing research methods include: – Questionnaires and surveys can be printed on paper which are distributed to respondents or the general public – For FGDs, you can invite 10-15 respondent representatives. The topic of discussion can be chosen according to the type of marketing research – You can do face-to-face interviews with respondents. Respondents you can meet randomly at the point of sale of goods or service operational activities – Observations are made at the location of the sale of goods, during promotional activities, and at the place of service operations 5. The next step, you can collect data and conclude 6. The data is then analyzed from various aspects according to the type of marketing research you are doing 7.|
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Marketing Research Example
Tips for Doing Marketing Research
- Define specific marketing research objectives
- Learn in depth which target consumers are suitable for marketing research respondents
- Choose a method that suits the type of marketing research you are going to do. This selection will result in research conclusions that help you formulate the right marketing strategy
After learning the things that must be prepared to make marketing research, you are ready, right ? Don’t forget, marketing research also has a control and evaluation function, both in terms of marketing and consumer satisfaction with your goods/services. So, do it regularly in a certain period, yes!
What is marketing research?
Marketing research ( marketing research ) is a series of data collection processes that are used as the basis for marketing activities.
What are the goals of marketing research?
1. Taking advantage of market gaps
2. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of goods/services
3. Getting information directly from consumers
4. Determining the right sales system
5. Knowing the success of the branding process
6. Determining marketing strategies
What are the marketing research methods?
4. FGD ( Focus Group Discussion )
What is the marketing research process like?
1. Formulating the problem
2. Determining the type of marketing research
3. Designing data collection methods
4. Taking samples and collecting data
5. Performing data analysis and interpretation
6. Compiling research reports